Mustafa Sami Demirsoy, Aras Erdil, Gülhan Güler Avcı, Fikret Gevrek
Aim of the study Lesions such as intraoral buccal mucositis encountered during radiotherapy after head and neck cancers are challenging regarding the prognosis and patient survival. For this purpose, the effectiveness of propolis containing high caffeic acid phenyl ester on buccal mucositis was investigated in a rodent model. Material and methods In the study groups, which comprised nine rats each, radiotherapy (15Gy) was delivered to the head and neck regions. In two of the study groups 100 and 200 mg/kg propolis were administered systemically for 14 days. In the harvested buccal mucosa samples, proinflammatory markers (interleukin-6 [IL-6], myeloperoxidase [MPO], tumor-necrosis factor-α [TNF-α]) were analyzed with Enzyme Linked-Immuno-Sorbent Assay method, and tissue samples were stained with Hematoxylin-eosin and classified regarding the inflammation scores. Results The tissue levels of IL-6, MPO, and TNF-α significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in experimental groups (P = 0.001, P = 0.016, P = 0.001, respectively). Also, the inflammation scores were highest in Group 2 (P = 0.002), whereas Groups 3 and 4 had the lowest (P = 0.012). Conclusions Aqueous propolis extract containing high caffeic acid phenyl ester can prevent lesions with its superior anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging properties. The administration of aqueous propolis containing high caffeic acid phenyl ester decreased the inflammatory responses in a dose-dependent manner.