Doriana Agop Forna, Corneliu Munteanu, Ovidiu Stamatin, Norin Forna, Marcelin Berchea, Gholamreza Shokraei, Siminiuc Petruta, Hutanu Vasile, Norina Forna
Aim of the study The objective of this study was to compare biodegradable biomaterials from MgCaGd and MgCaZr systems in terms of their physicochemical properties, degradation behavior and biocompatibility, with the aim of evaluating their potential application in maxillary/mandible bone reconstruction. Material and methods Biomaterials composed of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), gadolinium (Gd) and zirconium (Zr) were obtained by casting in an inert Argon atmosphere, using high purity elements in the casting phase. The samples were characterized for their elemental composition using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and analyzed for their microstructural properties using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The degradation behavior of the materials was evaluated by immersing the samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) and monitoring changes in pH and ion release over time. In addition, cell viability and morphology were assessed by seeding human osteoblast-like cells on the biomaterial surfaces. The tests and determinations were carried out in the laboratories of the Technical University “Gh. Asachi” Iasi. Results EDS analysis confirmed the presence of Mg, Ca, Gd and Zr in the compositions of the respective biomaterials. SEM and XRD analysis revealed a homogeneous microstructure with well-defined crystalline phases in both MgCaGd and MgCaZr samples. The degradation study showed that the MgCaGd and MgCaZr biomaterials exhibited a controlled degradation behavior with gradual increase in pH and ion release over time. Cell viability tests demonstrated good biocompatibility as evidenced by high cell viability and normal cell morphology observed on both surfaces of the biomaterial. Conclusions Biodegradable biomaterials from MgCaGd and MgCaZr systems demonstrated comparable physicochemical properties, degradation behavior and biocompatibility. These findings highlight their potential as promising candidates for bone reconstruction applications in the mandible. Further in vivo studies are needed to validate their performance and evaluate their long-term effects on bone regeneration.